# numpy.random.RandomState.noncentral_f¶

method

`RandomState.``noncentral_f`(dfnum, dfden, nonc, size=None)

Draw samples from the noncentral F distribution.

Samples are drawn from an F distribution with specified parameters, dfnum (degrees of freedom in numerator) and dfden (degrees of freedom in denominator), where both parameters > 1. nonc is the non-centrality parameter.

Parameters: dfnum : float or array_like of floats Numerator degrees of freedom, should be > 0. 在 1.14.0 版更改: Earlier NumPy versions required dfnum > 1. dfden : float or array_like of floats Denominator degrees of freedom, should be > 0. nonc : float or array_like of floats Non-centrality parameter, the sum of the squares of the numerator means, should be >= 0. size : int or tuple of ints, optional Output shape. If the given shape is, e.g., `(m, n, k)`, then `m * n * k` samples are drawn. If size is `None` (default), a single value is returned if `dfnum`, `dfden`, and `nonc` are all scalars. Otherwise, `np.broadcast(dfnum, dfden, nonc).size` samples are drawn. out : ndarray or scalar Drawn samples from the parameterized noncentral Fisher distribution.

Notes

When calculating the power of an experiment (power = probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when a specific alternative is true) the non-central F statistic becomes important. When the null hypothesis is true, the F statistic follows a central F distribution. When the null hypothesis is not true, then it follows a non-central F statistic.

References

  Weisstein, Eric W. “Noncentral F-Distribution.” From MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/NoncentralF-Distribution.html
  Wikipedia, “Noncentral F-distribution”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noncentral_F-distribution

Examples

In a study, testing for a specific alternative to the null hypothesis requires use of the Noncentral F distribution. We need to calculate the area in the tail of the distribution that exceeds the value of the F distribution for the null hypothesis. We’ll plot the two probability distributions for comparison.

```>>> dfnum = 3 # between group deg of freedom
>>> dfden = 20 # within groups degrees of freedom
>>> nonc = 3.0
>>> nc_vals = np.random.noncentral_f(dfnum, dfden, nonc, 1000000)
>>> NF = np.histogram(nc_vals, bins=50, density=True)
>>> c_vals = np.random.f(dfnum, dfden, 1000000)
>>> F = np.histogram(c_vals, bins=50, density=True)
>>> plt.plot(F[1:], F)
>>> plt.plot(NF[1:], NF)
>>> plt.show()
```